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Desarrollo de Carrera – Preferencias, vocaciones e intereses PDF Correo electrónico

Desarrollo Organizacional e Inteligencia Organizacional

Bibliografía: “Desarrollo de Carrera – Preferencias, vocaciones e intereses”

Editado por The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica – 2005. Autor: Eric Gaynor Butterfield – RODP www.theodinstitute.org

Los Directivos, Ejecutivos y Profesionales confrontan en sus empresas en el día a día distintas “realidades” donde cada vez en mayor número y con mayor frecuencia, están sujetos a “situaciones” donde existe un alto potencial de “expulsión organizacional”  independientemente de los atributos de inteligencia, brillantez, creatividad y grado de compromiso que mantienen con la Organización. Más aún, nuestros estudios se orientan a mostrar evidencia empírica donde se sustenta el hecho que en gran medida dicha “expulsión organizacional” que es parte del proceso de de-selección, no se debe necesariamente a atributos – o falta de los mismos – como es el caso de inteligencia, brillantez, creatividad y grado de compromiso organizacional.

Después de una "luna de miel" que participaron los Directivos, Ejecutivos y Profesionales cuando se iniciaron en su Empresa, comienzan a suceder una serie de hechos que erosionan la “calidad del relacionamiento” produciéndose lo que aparece como un inevitable deterioro en el tiempo que culmina con el "Suicidio Profesional o el Asesinato Organizacional" (Autores: Dr. Donald W. Cole y Eric Gaynor Butterfield; Ed. The O. D. Institute International, 2003).

La pregunta del millón de dólares, y que está fuertemente relacionada con el “Desarrollo de Carrera” de estos Directivos, Ejecutivos y Profesionales, tiene que ver con CUÁLES SON LOS MOTIVOS por los cuáles ALGUNOS (solamente algunos) de éstos altos Directivos, Ejecutivos y Profesionales siguen aún en dichas Organizaciones mientras que otros son expulsados (o auto-expulsados). El fenómeno de “salida organizacional”, el estudio de ésta situación, las causas que lo originan, y las distintas consecuencias disfuncionales tanto para los Directivos, Ejecutivos y Profesionales como para la Organización, tienen que ver con la pregunta siguiente :

¿”Es el profesional que se suicida (en su profesión) o es la Organización quien lo asesina?

Este dilema fue originalmente descubierto – y luego investigado y analizado - por el Dr. Donald Cole (Presidente y Fundador de The O. D. Institute), como resultado de un “case study” en una empresa de high-tech de los Estados Unidos. En forma paralela, y como resultado de la evidencia encontrada en múltiples intervenciones organizacionales, Eric Gaynor Butterfield ha estudiado este fenómeno en Latinoamérica, prestando atención a lo que sucede en las distintas tipologías organizacionales existentes, y en particular dentro de las Corporaciones Multinacionales que operan en los distintos países latinoamericanos.

De modo que podemos resumir nuestro dilema de esta manera: ¿Cómo es posible que personas con Vocaciones, Intereses y Preferencias dentro de una Organización, ven en algún momento interrumpida el Desarrollo de (su propia) Carrera?

Algunos títulos principales del trabajo "Suicidio Profesional o el Asesinato Organizacional" (Autores: Dr. Donald W. Cole y Eric Gaynor Butterfield; Ed. The O. D. Institute International, 2003) y que se relacionan directamente con el Desarrollo de Carrera son: El estudio por el cual “egresan” personas de la Empresa; Alcance y Profundidad del estudio de la salida de los profesionales de la Empresa; el estilo de Conducción por “Compromiso del Subordinado”; El Proceso de Suicidio; Características Individuales que Contribuyen al Proceso del Suicidio; Características en la Organización que Contribuyen al Proceso del Suicidio.

El proceso del suicidio se origina en la Aceptación de un Contrato Indefinido que es seguido por un período de “Luna de Miel”, para luego pasar a una tercera etapa donde el participante “Pone a prueba el Contrato”. Como resultado del conflicto que vive el empleado (profesional, ejecutivo, directivo) éste busca en primera instancia resolver el mismo a través del sistema forma (con su superior) y ante la falta de una respuesta efectiva comienza a buscar apoyo en sus pares (el sistema informal), ingresando finalmente a una fase terminal al formarse el Síntoma.

Existen algunas características de los profesionales que contribuyen al proceso del suicidio profesional que se relacionan con las siguientes necesidades: la necesidad de Reconocimiento y de un Sentido de Autoestima, la necesidad de Crecimiento y Desarrollo (para la Autorrealización), la necesidad de que lo que hace tenga un sentido, la necesidad de una Estructura desde la cual pueda el profesional llegar a visualizar el mundo.

Y por supuesto también se presentan distintas características en la Organización que contribuyen al Proceso del Suicidio (o al Asesinato Organizacional), como es el caso de: el estrés provocado por Situaciones Ambiguas y como resultado de "No Saber", la falta de Objetivos y Metas específicos de la Organización; la falta de un Plan para Alcanzar los Objetivos, la confusión sobre las Reglas del Juego, la falta de Evaluación y Crítica, el estrés donde se manipula la Ansiedad como Motivador (Motivación por la Crisis), el estrés de la Competencia como Motivador y también de la Culpa como fuerza motivacional, entre otros.

Se incluye un detalle de distintas investigaciones y trabajos de expertos en el tema como es el caso del aporte de Emile Durkheim, estudios realizados con Aislamiento de Personas, investigaciones donde se ha expuesto a Grupos a “Estrés extremo” por períodos prolongados de tiempo, estudios de estrés en Animales, entre otros y finalmente se incluye una serie de recomendaciones a las que se denomina como el “Antídoto” que está a disposición tanto de los Ejecutivos como de la Empresa, para cortar este Proceso Suicida.

La vida de los Directivos, Ejecutivos y Profesionales dentro del mundo organizacional y particularmente dentro de las Corporaciones multinacionales, ha cambiado dramáticamente en los últimos 30 años.

  1. En los años 70 del siglo pasado los Directivos y Ejecutivos de Corporaciones multinacionales cambiaban unas 5 veces de trabajo en su vida y la mayor parte de ellos continuaban trabajando en las Corporaciones hasta el momento de jubilarse. A diferencia de ello, en ésta primer década del siglo XXI, los Directivos, Ejecutivos y Profesionales en este tipo organizacional cambian unas 5 veces de trabajo en solamente los primeros 9 a 10 años de trabajo!
  2. Por otro lado, la jubilación de estos Directivos y Ejecutivos ya NO es algo que debe tomarse como válida, ya que confrontan “salidas organizacionales” luego de los 35 o 40 años y cuentan con pocas posibilidades de reinsertarse en estas Corporaciones Multinacionales. Como consecuencia de ello estos Directivos y Ejecutivos se encuentran con una “alta vulnerabilidad” respecto de sus propias carreras en las grandes Corporaciones multinacionales MIENTRAS TIENEN TRABAJO, y una “muy alta vulnerabilidad” cuando están FUERA DE ELLAS (tienen unos 35 o 40 años y buscan reinsertarse).

Y este panorama parece que no ha de mejorar en el futuro cercano. The O. D. Institute International – Latin America ha sido pionera en estudiar éste fenómeno en el tiempo y traerlo a la luz con el propósito de  prestar asistencia a los Directivos, Ejecutivos y Profesionales en las organizaciones y especialmente dentro de las Empresas multinacionales. Se encuentra evidencia de lo aquí expuesto en otros países y comunidades además de Latino América, y éste fenómeno “está para quedarse”. Más aún, es posible que se acentúe aun más.

Recientes trabajos de campo de The Organization Development Institute International – Latin America, muestran la importancia de la existencia de una nueva variable “independiente” a tener en cuenta. Ella es la “generación de NUEVOS puestos de trabajo” algo que los organismos públicos nacionales provinciales y municipales, los organismos privados multinacionales y los organismos internacionales, NO han prestado atención.

Durante los años 1997 al 2002 alrededor del 90 %  de lo que hemos denominado “nuevas posiciones en organizaciones formales” es generado por un tipo organizacional que NO corresponde a las Corporaciones multinacionales. En Latino América podemos decir que el universo de organizaciones formales corresponde a la siguiente tipología: Corporaciones multinacionales, Organismos Públicos, ONG, Contratistas del Estado, y las mal llamadas empresas Pymes. De este universo organizacional el 90 % de las “nuevas posiciones en organizaciones formales” corresponde a las empresas Pymes. Y en el año 2003 las “nuevas posiciones en organizaciones formales” son generadas en el 96 % de los casos por las empresas Pymes.

Para el Directivo, Ejecutivo y Profesional que toma ésta situación como cuasi-apocalíptica o como que su presencia se debe a la existencia de “external locus of control”, el panorama puede ser sumamente desalentador. Sin embargo nuestra experiencia nos demuestra que aquellos Directivos, Ejecutivos y Profesionales que CONOCEN la existencia de ésta situación y que están dispuestos a “entrenarse” para sobrellevarla, van a ser SEGURAMENTE EXITOSOS. Pero éste “entrenamiento” ya no es el mismo al que ellos estaban acostumbrados; sus contendores son distintos y más duros, el combate tiene mayor duración y el arsenal que deben enfrentar es de un mayor calibre. Podemos asegurar desde The O. D. Institute International que contamos con suficiente material y evidencia donde aquellos que SE HAN ENTRENADO PAR ESTE COMBATE y cuentan con un arsenal de contra-ataque han de estar en condiciones de superar con éxito las dificultades a confrontar.

Podemos decir que en la actualidad el estado de las “Ciencias del Comportamiento” en Desarrollo Organizacional complementado por la aplicación apropiada de la Inteligencia Emocional, representan el ANTÍDOTO más contundente que tienen los Directivos, Ejecutivos y Profesionales para tener una continuada, creciente y sostenida exitosa carrera laboral (Taller: “Ciencias del Comportamiento” a cargo de Eric Gaynor Butterfield – Agosto 2001)

Con el propósito de asistir a los Directivos en las organizaciones y también a los empresarios respecto de la importancia de tener en cuenta el Desarrollo de Carrera de sus participantes organizacionales como así también sus intereses, preferencias y vocaciones en el campo laboral se incluye a continuación una Bibliografía sobre estos temas específicos. Pueden también acceder a The Organization Development Institute International y solicitar material sobre el dilema a que hemos hecho referencia más arriba. Existen muy pocos estudios longitudinales donde a través del tiempo se han estudiado las compatibilidades – e incompatibilidades – entre las personas y su organización donde están empleados. Chris Argyris (1961) ha sostenido por mucho tiempo que existe un desajuste entre las necesidades de crecimiento de los individuos y la eficiencia organizacional, y entendemos que tanto los directivos como los empresarios deben esforzarse en hacer todo lo posible para, por lo menos, achicar esta brecha disfuncional.

Muchas gracias.

Bibliografía: “Desarrollo de Carrera – Preferencias, vocaciones e intereses”

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The Organization Development Institute International, Latin America comparte esta Bibliografía en material de Desarrollo de Carrera, vocaciones, intereses y preferencias, con el principal propósito de que pueda ser aprovechada por los directores de organizaciones y empresarios de manera que les permitan aumentar la eficiencia organizacional y al mismo tiempo fortalecer la salud y el desarrollo de los miembros organizacionales. Desde ya damos la bienvenida a sugerencias sobre este material que nos permitan ir perfeccionándolo en el tiempo.

Muchas gracias por compartir.

Eric Gaynor Butterfield – RODP
The O. D. Institute International,
Latin America

Board member of The Organization Development Institute – Worldwide (Leader in O. D. since 1968).

www.theodinstitute.org


Para mayor información puede acercarse a
The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica
a través de : www.theodinstitute.org
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