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Organizaciones Transnacionales (las influencias transculturales) PDF Correo electrónico

Desarrollo Organizacional e Inteligencia Organizacional

Bibliografía: “Organizaciones Transnacionales (las influencias transculturales)

Editado por The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica – 2005. Autor: Eric Gaynor Butterfield – RODP www.theodinstitute.org

(Introducción: El desarrollo económico de China y de la India se ha sustentado en distintos elementos. En este modesto trabajo Bibliográfico queremos mostrar con hechos – y con humildad -  que hoy en día ya están muy cerca estos dos países de conformar el privilegiado lote de las 10 más grandes potencias de este planeta. Ambos países se han esforzado fuertemente durante las últimas tres décadas por aprender y aplicar los conocimientos relacionados con las Ciencias del Comportamiento y su aplicación para el Desarrollo Organizacional. Han de encontrar en esta bibliografía evidencia de la importancia que le han prestado a esta importante disciplina y como la misma se constituye en una herramienta fundamental para potenciar el mundo Empresarial competitivo. Mientras tanto en las distintas culturas latinoamericanas seguimos aletargados en un estado de hibernación respecto del aprendizaje y la aplicación de estos conocimientos. No es casualidad entonces, que nuestros países – y también su población – sigan pagando el precio de “ignorar” cuan importante es conocer sobre el comportamiento tanto a nivel individual como grupal y organizacional).

Uno de los aspectos que más me ha fascinado tanto como consultor internacional como cuando he realizado mis estudios de Doctorado en la Universidad estatal de Michigan, que otros expertos (fueran ellos consultores, académicos e investigadores) se inclinaran e hicieran  uso de la explicación “cultural” para explicar todo aquello que hasta ese momento ellos mismos no encontraban una “solución”.

De hecho, existen diferencias culturales notables que hasta los profanos en la materia reconocen. Pero de todas maneras me parecía una super-simplificación adjudicar a la “cultura – país – nación” todo aquello que parecía “no-entendible”.

Tiene  sentido que las distintas culturas elijan distintas formas asociativas u organizativas para recoger sus productos de la naturaleza y también para transformarlos y también debemos reconocer que hay culturas que son capaces de desarrollar formas asociativas para “producir” elementos y servicios que no siempre son 100 % tangibles. Además existen culturas que son capaces de trascender sus propios límites geográficos en relación con la obtención, procesamiento y comercialización tanto de bienes como de servicios.

Y podemos aprender algunas cosas más en este sentido al poder apreciar que algunas culturas son capaces de trascender sus límites geográficos no sólo en relación con los productos y servicios que comercializa; lo pueden hacer para “instalarse” localmente en otro país fuera de la metrópoli donde la organización se gestó inicialmente. Estas son las organizaciones transnacionales o multinacionales que se ven forzadas a tener en cuenta los aspectos trans-culturales propios de cada nueva cultura o país en la que han de radicarse.

Y este no es un tema sencillo de ninguna manera. El primer libro de “management” – o como gerenciar – se editó recién unos 60 años después de que se llevara a cabo la revolución industrial y la “profesión de Desarrollo Organizacional” emergió con fuerza unos 60 años después del primer libro de management.

La gente – y esto incluye a notables expertos en la materia – como es el caso de distintos investigadores, académicos, practitioners, e incluso empresarios comenzó a encontrar evidencia de que no existía una única “mejor forma de organizarse”. Esto implicaba que las organizaciones estaban sujetas a adoptar distintos arreglos en la medida en que estaban interesadas en sobrevivir y crecer. Nacieron entonces trabajos muy interesantes en la materia que estaban vinculados con “tipologías organizacionales”; al parecer, distintos contextos hacían necesaria una distinta forma de organizarse.

Una contribución importante en esta materia han sido los trabajos de Peter Blau (“The comparative study of organizations”; Industrial and labor relations review; number 18 – 1965); de Joan Woodward (“Industrial organization: theory and practice”; Oxford University Press – 1965); de Tom Burns (“The comparative study of organizations”; en Víctor Vroom (ed.) Methods of organizational research; Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press – 1967); de Paul Lawrence & Jay Lorsch (“Organizations & Environment”; Harvard University Press – 1967); de Amitai Etzioni (“A comparative analysis of complex organizations”; Glencoe: Free Press – 1961); de James D. Thompson “Organizations in action”; McGraw Hill – 1967; de Henry Landsberger (“A framework for the cross-cultural analysis of formal organizations”; en H. Landsberger (ed.) Comparative perspectives of formal organizations; Boston: Little Brown & Co. – 1970); de Charles Perrow (“A framework for the comparative analysis of organizations”; American Sociological Review, number 32 – 1967; y de Stanley Udy, Jr. (“The comparative analysis of organizations”; en J. G. March (ed.) Handbook of organizations; Chicago: Rand McNally – 1964).

A estas alturas del “estado de las ciencias del comportamiento dentro de las organizaciones” – entrados ya en la segunda mitad del siglo pasado - quedaban pocas dudas respecto de que era necesaria una importante variabilidad de tipo organizativa si es que estamos orientados a producir y comercializar bienes y servicios dentro de un mismo contexto.  Sin embargo, quedaba siempre flotando el hecho de que todo lo que se relacionaba con las organizaciones más allá de las fronteras del país donde ellas se originaban, no siempre se encontraban explicaciones respecto de cual era la “nueva” y mejor forma de organizarse. Por ende, la “diferente cultura” explicaba “los diferentes resultados” que alcanzan las empresas trans-nacionales.

Afortunadamente es mucho lo que hemos aprendido en esta materia a partir de la segunda mitad del siglo pasado, que nos puede inspirar y orientar hacia nuevas y mejores perspectivas para comprender el fenómeno de las organizaciones y empresas transnacionales.

Hace casi una década atrás (en el año 1997) hemos sido muy afortunados al poder contar con la presencia del Presidente de The Organization Development Institute, en un Congreso de Desarrollo Organizacional que se realizara en la Argentina. Allí el Dr. Donald W. Cole señaló que al interesarse en promover la profesión de Desarrollo Organizacional en México, recibiera como respuesta que el Desarrollo Organizacional tiene poca aplicabilidad en México pues aún la forma prevaleciente de organizarse y de operar es la que se conoce bajo el nombre de burocracia.

Estas palabras tuvieron un importante impacto en mí, y en especial en la relación que yo debía mantener con mis Clientes, tanto en el desarrollo de mis labores como consultor, capacitador, formador, agente de cambio. En realidad, y bajo mi perspectiva, justamente el hecho de que existiera una forma empresarial y productiva que se caracterizara por operar en forma burocrática, es ella misma la que justifica la existencia del Desarrollo Organizacional. La presencia de algo – bajo mi perspectiva – surge como consecuencia de la carencia, y no tanto por la presencia. Bajo mi perspectiva el potencial de introducción de cambios y mejoras en las organizaciones dentro de las distintas culturas latinoamericanas a partir de la profesión de Desarrollo Organizacional, contaban con un terreno sumamente fértil e infinito.

De todas maneras rondaba sobre mi cabeza el relato del Dr. Cole. Con el propósito de encontrar una vía que facilitara explorar esta situación que aparecía como un dilema más bien que como un conflicto, desarrollé un trabajo de investigación titulado “Organizaciones y el Desarrollo Económico” (Eric Gaynor Butterfield, Agosto 2001) bajo el patrocinio de The Organization Development Institute International, Latin America.

Algunas de las conclusiones de dicho trabajo se detallan a continuación:

1. Los países con mayor grado de desarrollo económico – medido en ingreso per cápita – cuentan con el mayor número de organizaciones transnacionales.

2. Los países subdesarrollados tienen una presencia prácticamente nula en el mundo de las empresas transnacionales.

3. Las empresas transnacionales son posibles como resultado de contar con una vigorosa organización local del país que opera como metrópoli.

4. Los países subdesarrollados se caracterizan por contar muy pocas organizaciones vigorosas dentro de su propio contexto.

5. Muchas de estas pocas organizaciones vigorosas dentro de los países subdesarrollados  han surgido como resultado de haber crecido más como “contratistas del estado” que como empresarios (competitivos).

6. El hecho de que las pocas organizaciones vigorosas dentro de los países subdesarrollados hayan crecido como “contratistas del estado” (en lugar de cómo empresarios) las ha hecho no-competitivas para operar dentro del mundo globalizado.

Es sumamente desafortunado que la inmensa mayoría de los economistas no hayan tenido en cuenta la importancia que tiene la creación y el desarrollo de organizaciones para el crecimiento de las comunidades, países y naciones. Y lo que es más desafortunado aún, es que sigan sin tenerlo en cuenta. Algunos de ellos parecen fascinados con “datos macroeconómicos” sin darse cuenta que la macro-economía  solamente puede existir como resultado de la micro-economía, y que dentro de ésta el rol del empresario innovador es vital (Joseph Schumpeter).

En el año 1996 hemos publicado un artículo en la Revista del “Instituto Argentino de Ejecutivos de Finanzas” (Eric Gaynor Butterfield; año 12, número 123 del mes de marzo de 1996) donde se destaca la importancia clave que tienen las organizaciones en el desarrollo tanto para el individual como para la economía de la comunidad. Los países desarrollados son aquellos que han sido capaces de transferir las riquezas individuales de sus miembros a acciones grupales, y de allí a comportamientos organizacionales para finalmente hacerlos trascender fuera de su país de origen (Fiat, Scania, Rolls-Royce, Ford, Hewlett-Packard, Mc Donald, Toyota, Mercedes Benz, Bayer son solamente algunos pocos ejemplos).

En dicho artículo se destaca que el subdesarrollo de las comunidades y países se encuentra vinculado con el fenómeno que hemos denominado allí bajo el nombre de “eslabón perdido”; la falta de ligazón entre el desarrollo individual y el desarrollo comunitario. Allí destacamos que “el estado del arte de la disciplina de Desarrollo Organizacional”  nos puede ilustrar sobre formas más efectivas y eficientes para el desarrollo y crecimiento de las empresas, siendo entonces lo Organizacional nuestra unidad focal.

En dicho artículo se destaca “que los trabajos de campo realizados sugieren que el grado de desarrollo de las organizaciones es una variable relevante tanto para el crecimiento individual en una comunidad, como para el crecimiento de la comunidad en su conjunto. Ello sugiere, como una hipótesis principal, que la “inteligencia individual” de algunos miembros no es suficiente para conseguir el desarrollo y crecimiento de la comunidad, y a su vez, las limitantes comunitarias restringen – en lo que llamaremos un segundo ciclo – el desarrollo de dichas inteligencias individuales. El eslabón faltante es lo que nosotros llamamos la “inteligencia colectiva” que está muy fuertemente relacionada con el crecimiento de las empresas (Desarrollo Organizacional)”.

El artículo sigue: “Esto sugiere que la riqueza de la supuesta “economía” de las naciones con mayor grado de desarrollo económico está basada principalmente en el grado de fortaleza de sus organizaciones. En realidad, esto ha sido así en todos los tiempos, ya que son las empresas las que compiten entre si para ganar mercado y tener una importante porción de la misma, sobreviviendo aquellas que pueden vivir “competitivamente”. Para competir las empresas deben tener productos y servicios que sean “pagados” por sus Clientes, y esto a su vez genera la necesidad de desarrollar una fuerza laboral que realice su aporte en la producción y posterior “delivery” de los respectivos productos y servicios. Este hecho tan pero tan simple no siempre ha sido tenido en cuenta por los economistas, sociólogos y políticos, quienes en su enfoque tradicional a través de la metodología deductiva asumen hipótesis de “arriba hacia abajo” donde ellos siempre juegan con las piezas blancas del ajedrez y los demás a veces ni siquiera pueden llegar a “mover sus piezas negras”. El precio que se paga por este enfoque es enorme, y podemos predecir que las consecuencias pueden ser letales en muy corto plazo”.

A lo que debemos agregar – y que ya sabemos – que el enfoque deductivo (como es el trabajo de Marx sobre modelos de desarrollo económico y social) no es el que está vinculado directamente con la creatividad e innovación. Por el contrario, es el método inductivo el que se relaciona más directamente con la creatividad, la innovación y “los hallazgos deslumbrantes” (como lo es el trabajo de Charles Darwin, por ejemplo). Finalmente no queremos dejar de destacar el hecho que las disciplinas macro (economía principalmente) han sido muy buenas para “explicar” fenómenos. ¿Acaso conoce Usted a algún economista que no esté en condiciones de explicar porqué es que ayer se ha producido una devaluación? Sin embargo, muchos hechos demuestran que han sido muy pobres en predecir y esto les cabe a los economistas de la Argentina en particular. No he escuchado a uno solo de ellos poder anticipar que la Argentina pudiera descender tanto puestos en importancia; de estar entre las 10 potencias más importantes en la década del 40 del siglo pasado ha retrocedido como ningún otro país en el planeta.

Los empresarios – especialmente dentro de las culturas latinoamericanas – no cuentan con un suficiente arsenal de conocimientos en relación con el Desarrollo Organizacional, y menos aún en lo que se relaciona con el Desarrollo Organizacional más allá de las fronteras de su propio país. Los empresarios de los países desarrollados – por el contrario – se han beneficiado largamente de estos conocimientos y en muchos casos estos mismos empresarios y líderes organizacionales han compartido sus experiencias enriquecedoras con otros. Podemos destacar dos importantes ejemplos de ello como es el caso de Alfred Sloan (“My years with General Motors”; Sidgwick & Jackson – 1965) y de Chester I. Barnard (“The functions of the executive”; Harvard University Press – 1938).

Intentamos con esta Bibliografía en materia de temas Trans-nacionales y Trans-culturales poner al servicio de los empresarios y emprendedores dentro de los distintos países latinoamericanos, de un número importante de aportes que le han de ser de utilidad tanto conceptual como práctica, para la mejor introducción de sus productos y servicios fuera de sus fronteras. Esperamos que como resultado de esta modesta contribución bibliográfica, que al conocimiento sobre Desarrollo Organizacional se le pueda agregar además aquello que “se sabe” puede distinguir a una empresa transnacional eficiente de una que no lo es.

La literatura en materia de experiencias transnacionales donde se ha tratado de aprender “que es dentro de la cultura” que hace la diferencia es vasta y variada; hemos elegido algunos de ellos y aquí los compartimos con usted, estimado lector.

No hemos encontrado evidencia anterior de que se haya editado material Bibliográfico en relación con esta particular temática, de modo que en esta  primera iniciativa, hemos de agradecer muy especialmente las sugerencias y recomendaciones que seguramente tienen ustedes en sus cabezas (metafóricamente ya que está en sus mentes). Ellas han de ser muy bienvenidas.

Muchas gracias por compartir.

Eric Gaynor Butterfield _ RODP

The Organization Development Institute International, Latin America

Board Member of The Organization Development Institute – Worldwide

www.theodinstitute.org

Bibliografía: “Desarrollo Organizacional” –“Variables Trans-culturales”

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Esperamos que los lectores de habla hispana pertenecientes a nuestra importante cultura latinoamericana puedan apreciar en este modesto trabajo Bibliográfico la importancia que le han prestado estudiosos, académicos, practitioners y empresarios a las Ciencias del Comportamiento y a la profesión de Desarrollo Organizacional. Las contribuciones de personalidades de China y la India han sido crecientes en las últimas 3 décadas, ganando reconocimiento no solo dentro de sus países, sino también dentro de los países más desarrollados.

Es nuestro deseo que este trabajo bibliográfico sirva de inspiración a los más altos directivos de organizaciones como así también a empresarios dentro de Latinoamérica para hacer uso de lo que se sabe dentro de las Ciencias del Comportamiento y la Profesión de Desarrollo Organizacional, para crear organizaciones competitivas a nivel planetario que permitan generar trabajo genuino dentro de nuestras comunidades. Los regalos que los trabajadores puedan recibir en materia de dinero únicamente, no son suficientes para satisfacer las necesidades más vitales de supervivencia que ellos tienen, pero peor aún, representan un atentado letal contra su propia dignidad y la de sus familias.

Es posible crear organizaciones competitivas en Latinoamérica pues contamos con ventajas apreciables respecto de otros países del mundo en cuanto a recursos, y además en cuanto a recursos / consumidores de recursos. Pero si las ventajas por recursos naturales que Dios ha puesto a nuestro servicio, las obsequiamos al desconocer variables y aspectos claves dentro del mundo empresarial que se relacionan con las Ciencias del Comportamiento, no tendremos entonces ninguna razón valedera para quejarnos de nuestro nivel de desarrollo.

Teniendo en cuenta que esta iniciativa Bibliográfica es un primer esfuerzo, agradeceremos a los lectores hacer sus aportes y contribuciones en la materia. Han de ser muy bienvenidos.

Muchísimas gracias por compartir.

Eric Gaynor Butterfield – RODP

Presidente The Organization Development Institute International, Latin America

Board Member of The Organization Development Institute – Worldwide

www.theodinstitute.org


Para mayor información puede acercarse a
The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica
a través de : www.theodinstitute.org
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