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Psicología Organizacional PDF Correo electrónico

Desarrollo Organizacional, Cambio Organizacional e Inteligencia Organizacional

Bibliografía: “Psicología Organizacional”

Editado por The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica – 2005. Autor: Eric Gaynor Butterfield – RODP www.theodinstitute.org

En uno de nuestros Talleres de Liderazgo una persona nos hizo llegar un comentario que creemos vale la pena compartir. En dicho Taller se exploraban los distintos estilos de Liderazgo mostrando los descubrimientos de “Ohio State University” al encontrar evidencia que el Liderazgo se relaciona con dos dimensiones. Tradicionalmente la perspectiva sobre liderazgo de las personas se basa en que el Liderazgo es una dimensión donde en un extremo encontramos el estilo autoritario mientras en el otro extremo contamos con un tipo de liderazgo participativo.

También se revisaron los conceptos y prácticas de Robert Blake y Jane Mouton (The managerial grid III, Gulf – 1985) en relación con la postura que adopta el superior ante sus subordinados. Este participante al Taller manifestó que “a el le ha dado muy buenos resultados adoptar siempre la posición autoritaria” destacando que “encontró que siempre es el más efectivo”. Señalaba que “el jefe es el que tiene que pensar y dar órdenes” y que el resto debe cumplirlas. Según este participante el estilo de liderazgo participativo no es el más efectivo, y por eso ha adoptado – y se mantiene fiel – al estilo autoritario.

Este comentario – que usualmente los participantes no comparten en un Taller abierto aunque tengan ese mismo pensamiento en sus cabezas – dio origen a un debate muy interesante. Luego de ese debate otro participante – al observar que me había quedado callado en materia de dar respuesta, ya que solamente había estimulado a través de preguntas que “otros” expresen su punto de vista – se dirige hacia mí y me formula siguiente pregunta queriendo saber sobre mi parecer y qué tipo de respuesta personal estaría en condiciones de compartir con el participante quien hizo la pregunta original.

Mi respuesta fue la siguiente: “¿Alguna vez – y en distintas situaciones – usted ha probado un estilo diferente?” Y en el caso de que lo haya hecho “¿Cómo ha evaluado esos distintos resultados?” En realidad, y algo que sí sabemos a ciencia cierta, es que el comportamiento autoritario puede ser útil en circunstancias de grave peligro donde alguien debe decidir por el resto (como cuando el Capitán de un buque que se hunde observa que hombres de 30 años se arrojan al bote sin dar preferencia a los niños, mujeres y ancianos) y eventualmente donde no hay suficiente tiempo para dialogar sobre distintas opciones. Y lo que también sabemos es que el estilo autoritario no da resultados a largo plazo y además tiene un costo psicológico muy alto.

Edgar Schein es un experto en relación con “la fase inicial de las personas que ingresan a las corporaciones”; los ejecutivos, directivos y gerentes que ingresan a las organizaciones requieren que la organización haga algo más que simplemente darles una oficina muy bonita junto con una secretaria  muy atenta. Y ¿Donde es que aprendió Edgar Schein algunas de estas cosas que influyen sobre el comportamiento organizacional y que a su vez tienen consecuencias desde el punto de eficiencia organizativa?

Schein estuvo familiarizado con lo que les sucedía a los prisioneros norteamericanos durante la guerra que Estados Unidos de Norteamérica mantuvo en el Lejano Oriente. Y también asistió a que los paracaidistas norteamericanos no fueran capturados o muertos bajo los índices que mostraban las estadísticas hasta esos momentos.

Eric Gaynor Butterfield (Congreso de Desarrollo Organizacional, Argentina – 1999) hace mención a dos intervenciones de consultoría donde encuentra sustento al hecho que algunas personas tienen “en sus cabezas” una forma de liderar diferencial, y que la misma está relacionada con “la visión que tienen respecto de cómo opera una empresa” (más estructurada o menos estructurada).

En estos trabajos se encontró que aquellos líderes que concebían que la empresa funcionaba principalmente en base a “su estructura organizativa”, lo cual implica privilegiar el organigrama y los manuales de descripción y funciones y manual de procedimientos, tendían a adoptar y hacer uso de un estilo de relacionamiento con el personal de tipo autoritario. Mientras que aquellos directivos y ejecutivos en la empresa que tenían en sus cabezas (metafóricamente puesto que es en sus mentes) que pasan muchos “otras cosas más” en la empresa y que NO se relacionan con los aspectos formales y estructurales de la organización (como es el caso de la motivación, la persuasión, el compromiso) se orientaban a adoptar un estilo de relacionamiento con el personal de mayor consideración hacia ellos, más participativo.

El desarrollo de habilidades tanto intra personales como inter personales asiste a las personas en aprender algo más respecto del comportamiento de terceros, y pueden apreciar las distinciones que están presentes en las personas. A su vez eso le ha de permitir al conductor tener en cuenta la siguiente frase que todo líder debe tener presente: “No hay nada más injusto que tratar igual a personas diferentes”.

Todo el enfoque de comercialización se ha visto modificado completamente respecto de cómo lo estaban haciendo, y con él también lo ha sido el arreglo organizacional. Thomas Peters & Robert Waterman (“In search of excellence: lessons from America`s best-run companies”; Harper & Row - 1982) muestran que las organizaciones no pueden proyectarse en base a lo que los líderes consideran que es el mejor producto o servicio y después – en una segunda instancia – salir a comercializarlo. Este enfoque ha sido bueno hasta unos 20 años atrás; ahora la perspectiva no es desde el producto o servicio hacia el Cliente sino que es “desde el Cliente – y lo que aprendo de él – y hacia la empresa”. La best practice conocida bajo el nombre de Customer Relationship Management (CRM) hace énfasis en este punto.

El campo de la psicología organizacional  ha servido para que aquellos que la aplican tengan ventajas competitivas respecto de sus contendores. Por favor no vayan a interpretar que por sí sola la diferencia en rentabilidad se debe a las ciencias del comportamiento o a la psicología organizacional. Los costos operativos y financieros así como también la estrategia de ventas y la tecnología por la cual se procesan los productos y servicios son de vital importancia. Lo que sucede es que comúnmente los conocimientos en estas materias son de “tipo público” y por lo tanto todos pueden acceder a ellas. De allí que la diferencia competitiva en éstos momentos puede llegar a conseguirse como resultado de lo que sí sabemos hoy en día respecto de qué – y como – aplicar los conocimientos sociales dentro de una empresa.

Y un último punto que quisiéramos compartir con Usted. El estilo de relacionamiento que se basa en privilegiar la “estructura” por encima de los procesos que se suceden dentro de la empresa durante cada minuto, no ha mostrado ser efectivo para realizar cambios en la empresa. Por lo tanto, antes de terminar, y convencido de mis propios rendimientos decrecientes, les hago llegar una última pregunta:

¿Creen ustedes que el estilo autoritario puede sostenerse en el tiempo teniendo en cuenta que los CAMBIOS en las empresas deben hacerse ahora a un ritmo casi vertiginoso?

The Organization Development Institute International, Latin America ha editado este trabajo que incluye una Bibliografía sobre Psicología Organizacional que tiene muy en cuenta a las “diferencias individuales”, para ayudar a los ejecutivos corporativos y propietarios en la tarea compleja y difícil que confrontan diariamente relacionado con la conducción en sus empresas. El lector interesado en profundizar aún más puede acudir a www.gestiopolis.com donde se incluyen temáticas que están fuertemente relacionados con esta Bibliografía (Motivación, Liderazgo, entre otros).

Muchas gracias por compartir.

Eric Gaynor Butterfield – Presidente

The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica

www.theodinstitute.org

Board member of The Organization Development Institute – Worldwide

Psicología Organizacional

 

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Esta primer Bibliografía sobre Psicología Organizacional espera poder ser el punto de partida para ampliarla aun mas con la colaboración de usted, estimado lector. Desde ya The Organization Development Institute Internationoal, Latin America acepta gustosamente sus recomendaciones y agregados en materia de nuevos materiales vinculados con el tema de “Psicología Organizacional – Diferencias entre las personas”. Les damos, desde ya, nuestras gracias.

Eric Gaynor Butterfield – RODP

Presidente The O. D. Institute International, Latin America

www.theodinstitute.org

Board member of The O. D. Institute - Worldwide


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