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Capacitación, Entrenamiento y procesos de Aprendizaje del Personal en las Empresas y Organizaciones PDF Correo electrónico

Desarrollo Organizacional, Cambio Organizacional, Eficiencia Organizacional e Inteligencia Organizacional

Bibliografía: “Capacitación, Entrenamiento y procesos de Aprendizaje del  Personal en las Empresas y Organizaciones”

Editado por The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica – 2005. Autor: Eric Gaynor Butterfield – RODP www.theodinstitute.org

 

No existe una sola organización en el planeta donde los Clientes son los mismos, los productos y servicios siguen siendo los mismos que se comercializaban tiempo atrás, y la tecnología de procesamiento de los mismos se ha mantenido inalterable en el tiempo. Esto obliga a las empresas a tomar dos decisiones importantes en materia de personal; la primera de ellas se vincula con la rotación del personal que obliga a iniciar un nuevo proceso de reclutamiento y selección de personal. La segunda de ellas hace necesario que la organización capacite a sus participantes organizacionales.

Es decir, los miembros organizacionales deben necesariamente aprender. Deben aprender los nuevos individuos que se incorporan a la empresa y los que allí permanecen deben aprender nuevas concepciones y prácticas. Para reducir la vulnerabilidad de la organización respecto de sus participantes, los grupos y distintas unidades de la empresa deben aprender y, finalmente también debe aprender la organización (Eric Gaynor Butterfield; Congreso de Desarrollo Organizacional, Buenos Aires – 2001). Knowledge Management resulta ser en alguna medida una efectiva práctica para que el conocimiento a nivel individual y grupal se transforme en un conocimiento organizacional. Sachiko Nonaka & Nobuko Takeuchi (“The knowledge-creating company”; New York: Oxford University Press – 1995) nos ilustran como las empresas japonesas crean lo que ellos han denominado “las dinámicas de la innovación”. Por otro lado los desarrollos en cuanto a los procesos de aprendizaje virtuales (como es el caso de “Virtual learning: A revolutionary approach to building a highly skilled workforce”; Roger Schank; New York: McGraw-Hill – 1997) destacan que hoy en día el entrenamiento a través del método  “de enseñar a través del habla” son parte de la historia y del pasado. Las personas han de aprender como consecuencia de “hacer” y, según Roger Schank, el aprendizaje virtual muestra como se puede repensar de manera radical respecto de cómo desarrollar un nuevo programa de entrenamiento para el personal en la organización.

Distintos trabajos de campo muestran que en gran medida las organizaciones, empresas y corporaciones dentro de las distintas culturas latinoamericanas aún privilegian el método tradicional, lo que produce resultados, pero de tipo limitado.

Es por ello que ponemos a disposición de los lectores interesados, distintos materiales relacionados con la capacitación, el entrenamiento, y los procesos de aprendizaje dentro de las empresas. Las empresas que no se embarquen en estos nuevos desarrollos pueden estar desaprovechando oportunidades que se presentan en el mercado y la posibilidad de obtener ventajas competitivas … que algún otro empresario visionario puede estar queriendo adoptar e implantar.

Roger Schank hace las siguientes observaciones en la sección titulada: “Companies that get new people productive faster will become more profitable. The ability to train people at their home office locations via a three-hour computer simulation is enormously appealing for many reasons, not the least of which is turnover. Nothing frustrates organization leaders more than spending a lot of money flying people all over the place, getting them trained only to see them leave a short time later, and then repeating the process”. Schank sugiere que en muy poco tiempo las empresas PYMES han de estar en condiciones de contar con software de entrenamiento “virtual” a un costo muy bajo relativamente (entre 500 y 1.000 dólares). Debido a su particular enfoque pragmático el autor concluye que el aprendizaje en el trabajo (on the job learning) no va a desaparecer en el siglo venidero; pero de todas maneras ha de tener que co-existir con el aprendizaje virtual.

En relación con la capacidad de innovar de las organizaciones  Sachiko Nonaka & Nobuko Takeuchi (“The knowledge-creating company”; New York: Oxford University Press – 1995) hacen algunas sugerencias que tanto los altos directivos como también los empresarios y líderes organizacionales, no deben descuidar: ”To become knowledge-creating companies, managers in the East and West need to build and manage multiple conversions, spirals, and syntheses, and not be content simple to carry out a unidimensional boeing match. The key lies in multiple transformations across multiple dimensions, or what we will call hypertransformations”. In order to cope with the uncertainty Japanese companies “are turning themselves into knowledge-creating companies on a global scale. They will emerge stronger from the current recession, since the seeds for continuous innovation have already been sewn. Japanese companies have taught us that innovation can be achieved by continuously creating new knowledge, disseminating it widely through the organization, and embodying it quickly in new technologies, products, and systems. This knowledge-creating process is no longer an enigma. This process is also no longer endemic to Japanese companies. It is universal”.

Aquellos que piensan que la capacitación y el entrenamiento del personal resulta algo muy caro, pueden intentar no tenerlo en cuenta. Van a tener suficiente tiempo para descansar cuando se encuentren sin trabajo o sin empresa (Eric Gaynor Butterfield; Jornada de Capacitación, Buenos Aires 1995).

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Muchas gracias por compartir.

Se agradecen nuevas sugerencias e ideas sobre esta Bibliografía.

Eric Gaynor Butterfield - RODP

Presidente The Organization Development Institute International, Latin America

Board Member of The Organization Development Institute – Worldwide

www.theodinstitute.org

 


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