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Selección de Personal e Instalación efectiva PDF Correo electrónico

Inteligencia Organizacional y Desarrollo Organizacional

Bibliografía: “Selección de Personal e Instalación efectiva”
Editado por The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica – 2005. Autor: Eric Gaynor Butterfield – RODP www.theodinstitute.org

 

Una vez más tenemos el orgullo de compartir con los lectores interesados una Bibliografía relacionada con el Desarrollo Organizacional que pone foco en dos aspectos principales:

a. la selección de personal;

b. la instalación efectiva de dicho personal en la empresa / organización.

Para tener aunque más no sea que “una pequeña idea del enorme atraso que tenemos las distintas culturas de los países latinoamericanos respecto de cómo operan (y lo que saben) las organizaciones norteamericanas”, hemos desarrollado una lista de materiales solamente en materia de selección de personal e instalación del mismo, del orden de 300 aportes y contribuciones. Si tenemos en cuenta que estos aportes incluyen marcos conceptuales como así mismo implicancias prácticas concretas que datan desde principios del siglo pasado, nos hemos de dar cuenta que el éxito que alcanzan las organizaciones en los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, no es simplemente fruto de la casualidad o del azar.

Si esperamos contar en los distintos países de latino-américa con empresas y organizaciones eficientes que puedan ser competitivas dentro de la globalización que vivimos, necesitamos saber lo que ya se sabe a ciencia cierta, investigar sobre aquellas hipótesis que no han sido unívocamente validadas, y aplicar eficazmente los conocimientos en los emprendimientos y organizaciones. Henry Ford, Walt Disney, Bill Gates, Ray Crock y Tom Watson entre otros, no han alcanzado sus éxitos caminando a tientas sino con el apoyo de distintas disciplinas, y entre ellas, las de las ciencias del comportamiento. Las organizaciones no se manejan eficientemente debido a la casualidad. A título de ejemplo deseo compartir con ustedes que en los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica ya contaban a principios del siglo pasado con un test de selección de personal a ser aplicado a conductores de transporte de pasajeros.

Esperamos que los directivos de empresas en Latinoamérica como así también los empresarios, puedan hacer uso de este material que representa una pequeña contribución de The Organization Development Institute International, Latin America para el logro de organizaciones eficientes que puedan generar trabajo genuino.

Resulta prácticamente imposible llevar adelante no solamente una empresa sino también cualquier organización social, si no se cuenta con un proceso efectivo de reclutamiento y selección de personal. Todas las organizaciones sociales lo hacen de una manera u otra, algunas bajo mecanismos más formales y otras más informales; en algunas organizaciones el proceso de selección es muy minucioso y lleva mucho tiempo como es el caso de los sindicatos y los partidos políticos y en otras oportunidades el proceso de selección puede ser casi nulo como es el caso de los campos de concentración y las cárceles (Amitai Etzioni: “Modern Organizations”; Prentice Hall – 1964).

Muchas veces la misma supervivencia de la organización y el mantenimiento de su ventaja competitiva es derivada de la composición de sus recursos humanos. Y el ingreso de las personas a la organización es un aspecto clave puesto que su costo tanto de continuar trabajando, como de desvinculación, es demasiado alto. Un Director de Personal de una empresa líder en tecnología informática nos asegura que el 50 % del éxito de su negocio pasa por el proceso de selección de personal. Y un Director de una empresa líder en head-hunting nos ha manifestado que sus servicios se han visto multiplicados en los últimos años puesto que los “procesos de selección de personal tradicionales ya no son suficiente garantía”.

Por eso es que a pesar de las muchas críticas que ha recibido el trabajo de Frederick Taylor (“Scientific Management”; Harper & Row – 1947) debemos reconocer que para este autor la selección de un “first class man” era una muy buena manera de mostrar quienes habrían de permanecer en las organizaciones y quienes tendrían que desvincularse.

 

Luego de la fase de selección de personal, los individuos convertidos en miembros organizacionales comienzan a transitar un camino que el Dr. Donald W. Cole denomina “luna de miel” (Professional Suicide or Organizational Murder; Mc Graw- Hill – 1981). No todas las personas permanecen dentro de la organización ni son tampoco instaladas efectivamente, lo que hace que para muchos individuos se vea interrumpida su carrera laboral. En el libro “Suicidio Profesional o Asesinato Organizacional” del Dr. Donald W. Cole y Eric Gaynor Butterfield; The Organization Development Institute International, Latin America – 2003), se detalla como se produce el proceso de deterioro en la relación entre los profesionales y la organización, lo que conduce a un camino que termina en la desvinculación del individuo con la empresa.

En las empresas y organizaciones dentro de las culturas latinoamericanas esto es materia sumamente sensible puesto que las leyes laborales y la resolución de los juicios de parte de los tribunales respectivos, han mostrado una inclinación a favorecer al empleado. En muchos casos, como es el caso de la República Argentina, incluso “habiendo ganado el caso” los costos del abogado del empleado que ha perdido el juicio (lo que no sucede con mucha frecuencia) deben incluso ser asumidos por el emprendedor que, paradójicamente, había ganado el juicio.

Hemos querido incluir además bibliografía relacionada con la “efectiva instalación” de las personas en las empresas. Se ha encontrado evidencia que muchas personas altamente eficientes, creativas y comprometidas con la organización, muchas veces pueden ser empujadas por “superiores” a desvincularse “antes de que se constituyan en problemas para ellos mismos”. Las empresas responsables de la prestación del servicio externo de selección de personal deben ser sumamente cuidadosas al presentar las ternas de candidatos a su Cliente; no ha faltado oportunidad en que el Cliente le manifestara a la selectora que muchos de los postulantes, según el jerárquico o superior del área donde habría de desempeñarse el individuo, los “encuentra demasiado calificados”.

Es por ello que se incluye bibliografía sumamente enriquecedora en los procesos de instalación del individuo que se relación con la capacidad de  acomodación de los participantes a la empresa, que muchas veces se relaciona con su capacidad de acomodación a su superior. Eric Gaynor Butterfield (Congreso de Desarrollo Organizacional; Buenos Aires – 1997) sugiere que muchas empresas en Latinoamérica son manejadas de una manera incluso más primitiva que bajo la forma de organización burocrática: sugiere que la misma tiende a operar como “organización nepótica”, que es un paso anterior – por lo menos – de la organización piramidal y/o burocrática.

Las organizaciones pueden vivir con los problemas que se suscitan en el contexto y con sus turbulencias adoptando distintos tipos de arreglos (D. Katz & R. Kahn; “The social psychology of organizations”; New Cork: Joh Wiley & Sons – 1978: James D. Thompson: “Organizations in Action”; Mc Graw – Hill – 1967; Tom Burns: “Industry in a new age”; New society – 1963), pero con las personas inapropiadas “dentro” de la misma empresa, su destino casi seguramente ha de resultar fatal.

Existen hoy día desafíos adicionales a los de la globalización financiera creciente; la diversidad y el rol de la mujer en las organizaciones tienden a hacer más complejos los procesos decisorios en materia de personal en las organizaciones. Teniendo en cuenta la complejidad implícita en los procesos de selección e instalación de personal en las organizaciones estamos incluyendo una Bibliografía que seguramente ha de resultarle de utilidad práctica a todos aquellos directivos que están en la cúspide de sus empresas y también a aquellos empresarios y dueños que debe defender su propio negocio.

Existen factores adicionales que hacen aún más importante el proceso de selección e instalación efectiva de personal hoy en día, de lo que era hace unos 30 años atrás. Nos encontramos con que los cambios son más bien transformacionales y muy por encima de los cambios transicionales o incrementales a los cuales estábamos acostumbrados. Seguramente el lector, sea director de una empresa o propietario, pueda beneficiarse mayormente acudiendo además a nuestra Bibliografía en materia de Capacitación y Entrenamiento (que ya hemos puesto a disposición de los lectores interesados) pues existe cada vez más una mayor integración como proceso integral, entre el reclutamiento, selección, instalación y capacitación /entrenamiento del personal.

Más abajo se incluyen unos 500 tratados que esperamos le sea de utilidad. Si tiene sugerencias de cambios, modificaciones, agregados o eliminaciones, le hemos de agradecer que los compartan abiertamente con nosotros. Muchas gracias.

Eric Gaynor Butterfield (RODP) – Presidente

The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica

Board member of The Organization Development Institute – Worldwide)

www.theodinstitute.org

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Agradeceremos contribuciones a esta lista que enriquezcan el producto. Muchas gracias.

Eric Gaynor Butterfield (RODP) – Presidente

The Organization Development Institute International, Latin America

Board member of The Organization Development Institute – Worldwide

www.theodinstitute.org

 


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