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Desarrollo Organizacional - parte 1 PDF Correo electrónico

Bibliografía:


“Desarrollo Organizacional”

Parte 1

Editado por The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica – 2005. Autor: Eric Gaynor Butterfield – RODP

www.theodinstitute.org

 

 

Existen diversas razones por la cual especialistas en distintas disciplinas tratan de explicar el desarrollo económico y social de los pueblos, comunidades, países, naciones.

The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica ha encontrado evidencia donde se muestra que el desarrollo está ligado a una variable que no ha sido usualmente explorada. No existe un país desarrollado que no haya sido capaz de crear, desarrollar, sostener y hacer crecer sus organizaciones. Volvo (Suecia), Fiat (Italia), Rolls Royce (Inglaterra), Citroen (Francia), Microsoft (USA), Bayer (Alemania), Nokia (Finlandia), Toyota (Japón), Hunday (Astillero - Corea)  son organizaciones que han sido exitosas en sus países, y también han sido capaces de alcanzar el éxito fuera de sus respectivas fronteras.

Y el Desarrollo Organizacional es un compuesto de la capacidad, entendimiento y deseo de movilizar y energizar recursos para las distintas unidades de análisis que se encuentran dentro de una comunidad: las personas (primera unidad de análisis), los grupos (segunda unidad de análisis) y la organización (como tercera unidad de análisis).

Existe mucha discusión respecto de la “aplicabilidad” de Desarrollo Organizacional en Latinoamérica, y una de ellas está vinculada con el factor tiempo que se requiere en todos los procesos de aprendizaje. Algunas personas expertos en empresas sostienen que el modelo tradicional prevaleciente dentro de las organizaciones en las distintas culturas latinoamericanas, usualmente adopta la forma “burocrática”. Otros sostienen – dentro del extraordinario pensamiento del filósofo francés Jean Jacques Rousseau – que el aprendizaje es acumulativo y por lo tanto a las empresas en Latinoamérica no les queda más remedio que cumplir – satisfactoriamente – cada una de las fases por las cuales han pasado las empresas en los países más desarrollados (ver: www.monografias.com; www.theodinstitute.org).

El principal magnate de la industria del acero afirmaba “Quítenme todas mis fábricas, quítenme mis negocios, mis medios de transporte y mi dinero, pero déjenme mi organización, y dentro de cuatro años volveré a tenerlo todo nuevamente”, dejando bien en claro la importancia de la variable organización.

Así como más arriba hemos mencionado que ”No existe un país desarrollado que no haya sido capaz de crear, desarrollar, sostener y hacer crecer sus organizaciones”, podemos también afirmar que un aspecto que es común a los países menos desarrollados es la “carencia de dichas organizaciones”. Por lo general estos países relativamente más empobrecidos incluso llegan a caracterizarse por el hecho de que – contando con recursos naturales más grandes, más económicos y de mayor calidad – no llegan a hacer uso favorable de dichos recursos. Sino ¿De qué manera podemos llegar a explicar que en la Argentina y el Uruguay puedan existir empresas exitosas haciendo hamburguesas con una verdura que no es la típica de esas culturas, con una salsa que jamás había sido probada antes dentro de dicha comunidad, y que viene acompañada por una bebida que tiene “gas y azúcar”? ¿Acaso no se caracteriza tanto la Argentina como el Uruguay por tener excelentes carnes (bife de chorizo y lomo) que puede ser acompañada por una ensalada (en lugar de un pepino) y en lugar de la gaseosa “tomar una copa de vino”? ¿Qué habilidades son necesarias para poder crear exitosamente una empresa como McDonald´s o Burger King, y ser incluso exitosos en países donde tienen serias desventajas competitivas? El Desarrollo Organizacional a través de las Ciencias del Comportamiento intenta dar respuesta a estos interrogantes y además de ayudar a los empresarios en Latinoamérica a ser más competitivos a nivel global. Y las ciencias del comportamiento – en especial la que tiene que ver con el comportamiento humano – es la disciplina más desarrollada al respecto hasta estos momentos. La organización es creada por una persona, tiene a personas como Clientes, sus proveedores son personas, tiene accionistas a quienes se debe recompensar como personas, y quiénes han de crear, generar y hacer la prestación de los servicios y productos de la organización hacia “afuera” son personas (participantes organizacionales).

Muchos economistas latinoamericanos fieles a su orientación y perspectiva que privilegia el método deductivo, han focalizado en las últimas décadas en la visión “macro”. Sugerimos que el enfoque inductivo es el que caracteriza al “creador e innovador” en su calidad de empresario generador “entrepeneur” o como intrapeneur. De modo que prestar la atención a las “unidades de análisis menores” – sobre las cuales se fundamenta en gran medida las ciencias del comportamiento – puede resultar ser de sumo interés y de utilidad. No existe empresario exitoso que haya ignorado el comportamiento humano. Y si los economistas en Latinoamérica quieren hacer contribuciones importantes se sugiere que tengan en cuenta el número importante de economistas en los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica que han privilegiado a las ciencias del comportamiento, agregando una perspectiva micro. Para muestra basta citar a Herbert Simon quien ha sido honrado con un Premio Nóbel de Economía (disciplina macro) cuando su perspectiva está fuertemente orientada hacia unidades de análisis menores como es la organización (ver: “Organizations”: James March & Herbert Simon, 1958 - Wiley & Sons).

Como aporte a esta orientación que ha probado ser exitosa en los países desarrollados estamos incluyendo algo más de 1.000 (mil) trabajos de expertos (de la letra “A” y hasta la “L”) en la materia que representan importantes contribuciones. Esperamos que usted también como lector y participante, se beneficie de la lectura, el uso y aplicación de los mismos.

Muchas gracias por compartir.

Eric Gaynor Butterfield – RODP

The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica

www.theodinstitute.org

Board Member of The Organization Development Institute – Worldwide (World Leader in Organization Development)

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